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viernes, 14 de julio de 2017

Stéphane Hessel

Stéphane Hessel

Stéphane Hessel
Europe Ecologie closing rally regional elections 2010-03-10 n04.jpg
Stéphane Hessel en 2010.
Información personal
Nombre de nacimientoStéphane Frédéric Hessel
Nacimiento20 de octubre de 1917
Bandera de Imperio alemán BerlínImperio alemán
Fallecimiento27 de febrero de 2013 (95 años)
Bandera de Francia ParísFrancia
Lugar de sepulturaCementerio de Montparnasse Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
ResidenciaParísFrancia
NacionalidadAlemana
CiudadaníaFrancesa
Familia
PadresHelen Grund Hessel
Franz Hessel
Educación
Alma máterEscuela Normal Superior de París
Información profesional
OcupaciónDiplomático, embajador y escritor
Conocido porRedactor de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos
Miembro de la resistencia francesa
Superviviente del Campo de concentración de Buchenwald
Años activo1946 - 2013
Obras notables¡Indignaos!
DistincionesLegion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Gran oficial de la Legión de Honor
Orden nacional del Mérito
Premio Norte-Sur
Premio UNESCO/Bilbao para una Cultura de los Derechos Humanos
Web
Sitio web

Stéphane Frédéric Hessel (BerlínAlemania20 de octubre de 1917 – ParísFrancia27 de febrero de 201312​) fue un diplomático, escritor y militante político francés. Fue miembro de las Fuerzas Francesas Libres, ejército de la Francia Libre durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y debido también a su origen judío, capturado y torturado por la Gestapo,34​ y recluso de los campos de concentración de BuchenwaldDora-Mittelbau. Su libro ¡Indignaos! (Indignez-vous !), es una obra de gran popularidad.

Biografía

Tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Hessel participó como diplomático en la redacción de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos.5
El 15 de marzo de 2009, durante la convención nacional de los comités locales de Europe Écologie en París, junto Cohn-Bendit y José Bové, Stéphane Hessel anunciaba su voluntad de apoyar las listas del partido para las elecciones europeas de junio de 2009, con "la esperanza de ver surgir una izquierda impertinente con peso", que a la postre obtuvo un excelente resultado colocándose como tercera fuerza nacional con el 16,28% de los votos y 13 eurodiputados. Desde entonces su compromiso con la formación continuó, apoyándola también en los comicios regionales de 2010.6
El diplomático y escritor falleció en la noche del 27 de febrero de 2013a los 95 años de edad.7

Publicaciones

¡Indignaos![editar]

Su libro ¡Indignaos! (Indignez-vous !), de gran popularidad durante las Navidades de 2010 en Francia,8​ con ventas de casi 1,5 millones de ejemplares,4​ ha sido traducido al español y publicado por la Editorial Destino, del Grupo Planeta, con prólogo de José Luis Sampedro. Las protestas de España y Francia que han tenido lugar en el año 2011, así como los movimientos ¡Democracia Real YA! y Movimiento de indignados 15-M, han sido relacionados con este libro y las ideas planteadas en él,9​ por lo que se conoce a los manifestantes de estas protestas como "indignados".

¡Comprometeos!

¡Comprometeos! (Engagez-vous !) es otro libro de Stéphane Hessel escrito junto con Gilles Vanderpooten y publicado en marzo de 2011 en Francia. Es una entrevista entre Hessel, de 93 años, y Vanderpooten, de 25 años, sobre los derechos humanos, la lucha contra la desigualdad y por la ecología. Hessel muestra su preocupación por la diferencia inconmensurable entre las fuerzas políticas y los jóvenes, así como la degradación del planeta y el medio ambientecomo uno de los mayores desafíos para la movilización de la generación más joven.1011

Mi baile con el siglo

Hessel publicó en Francia en 1997 sus memorias con el título Mi baile con el siglo, aunque solo llegó a España tras el éxito editorial de ¡Indignaos! y ¡Comprometeos!. El libro, publicado en octubre de 2011 por la Editorial Destino, del Grupo Planeta, sirve para ver el crecimiento personal de un joven de familia acomodada, que se forma en un ambiente intelectual. Como recoge en el libro, aprendió a jugar al ajedrez con Duchamp, un personaje habitual en su casa, como también lo fueron Man RayLe CorbusierBrancusiBreton o Picasso. Además, en Mi baile con el siglo narra asimismo cómo en 1944 se salvó de la condena a muerte en el campo de concentración de Buchenwald al cambiar su identidad por la de Michel Boitel, un prisionero francés que había muerto de tifus.

Condecoraciones[editar]

  • Gran oficial de la Legión de Honor
  • Premio UNESCO/Bilbao para una Cultura de los Derechos Humanos, 200812
  • Premio por la Paz 2008, de la Asociación para las Naciones Unidas en España (ANUE)

*****


Stéphane Hessel


Stéphane Hessel
Stéphane Hessel
Stéphane Hessel at a political rally for Europe Écologie, March 2010
BornStéphane Frédéric Hessel
20 October 1917
BerlinGerman Empire
Died26 February 2013 (aged 95)
Paris, France
ResidenceParis, France
CitizenshipFrench
OccupationDiplomat, ambassador
Years active1946–2013
Known forHuman Rights advocacy
French Resistance member
Buchenwald survivor
Notable workTime for Outrage!
(Indignez-vous!)
Spouse(s)Vitia Guetzevich (1939-1986; 3 children)[1]
Christiane Hessel-Chabry (1987-)
Parent(s)Helen Grund Hessel
Franz Hessel
AwardsLégion d'honneur
Ordre du Mérite
North-South Prize
UNESCO/Bibao Prize
Stéphane Frédéric Hessel (20 October 1917 – 26 February 2013[2]) was a diplomat, ambassador, writer, concentration camp survivor, French Resistance member and BCRA agent. Born German, he became a naturalised French citizen in 1939. He became an observer of the editing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. In 2011 he was named by Foreign Policy magazine in its list of top global thinkers. In later years his activism focused on economic inequalities, the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and protection for the post-World War II social vision. His short book Time for Outrage! sold 4.5 million copies worldwide. Hessel and his book were linked and cited as an inspiration for the Spanish Indignados, the American Occupy Wall Street movement and other political movements.

Early years

Hessel was born in Berlin, the son of Helen (born Grund), a journalist, and writer Franz Hessel, who inspired the characters of Jules and Kathe in Henri-Pierre Roché's novel Jules and Jim[3] (Kathe was called Catherine in the subsequent film adaptation by François Truffaut). His paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants who joined the Lutheran church, and his mother was from a Christian family.[4] Hessel emigrated to Paris with his parents in 1924.[5] Having received his baccalauréat when 15 years old, he was eventually admitted in 1939 to the École Normale Supérieure.[6] He became a naturalized French citizen in 1939,[5] before being mobilized later that year into the French army in Saint-Maixent-l'École. His first wife, Vitia, was the daughter of Boris Mirkin-Getzevich.

Second World War Resistance member

Refusing to adhere to the Vichy government of Marshal Philippe Pétain, Hessel fled to London and joined General Charles de Gaulle's group of Resistance members in 1941,[3][7] becoming a member of the Free French intelligence service (Bureau central de renseignement et d'action).[6] He returned to France, to organize Resistance communication networks in advance of the 1944 Allied invasion of France.[3] He was captured by the Gestapo and later deported to the Buchenwald and Dora concentration camps, where he was tortured by waterboarding.[7] Hessel, F. F. E. Yeo-Thomasand Harry Peulevé as well as Eugen Kogon and Alfred Balachowsky, escaped execution at Buchenwald through the help of KZ Kapo Arthur Dietzsch who exchanged their identities with three prisoners who had died of typhus.[7][8] Hessel tried unsuccessfully to escape from Dora, but was able to avoid being hanged in reprisal. He later escaped during a transfer to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp,[3] and went to Hannover, where he met the advancing troops of the United States Army.

Human Rights advocate, diplomat

After the war, Hessel became assistant to Henri Laugier, vice-secretary general of the United Nations in charge of economic and social affairs, and was an observer to the editing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[9] In 1962, he created the Association for Training in Africa and Madagascar (AFTAM) and became its first president.[10] In August 1982, Hessel was appointed for three years to the Haute Autorité de la communication audiovisuelle, the French regulatory agency for audio-visual communication. Hessel continued to hold a diplomatic passport, having been named an "ambassador for life".[7]
In 2003, along with other former Resistance members, he signed the petition "For a Treaty of a Social Europe" and in August 2006, he was a signatory to an appeal against the Israeli air-strikes in Lebanon. The appeal, made by the French member organization of European Jews for a Just Peace, was published in Libération and other French newspapers.[12]
In 2004, he was awarded the North-South Prize by the Council of Europe.[3] That same year, he participated in the commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the National Council of Resistance of 15 March 1944, which urged the younger generations to live by and pass on the legacy of the Resistance and its ideals of economic, social and cultural democracy.
On 14 July 2006, Hessel was made Grand Officier de la Légion d'honneur,[13] having already been given the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit in 1999.
Hessel called for the French government to make funds available to provide housing for the homeless[13] and denounced the French government's failure to comply with Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the Place de la Republique on 21 February 2008.
On the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 2008, Hessel received the UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights.[3][14] Hessel also received the United Nations Association of Spain Peace Prize Award 2008.
Hessel addressing a UNESCO conference, Paris (2011)
On 5 January 2009, Hessel criticized the Israeli military attacks in the Gaza strip, saying "In fact, the word that applies—that should be applied—is 'war crime' and even 'crime against humanity'.[15] But this word must be used carefully, especially when one is in Geneva, the seat of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, who may have an important opinion on that issue. For my part, having visited Gaza, having seen the refugee camps with thousands of children, the manner in which they are bombed appears as a veritable crime against humanity."
In 2011, Hessel was named by Foreign Policy magazine to its list of top global thinkers "[f]or bringing the spirit of the French Resistance to a global society that has lost its heart."[16]

Author

Time for Outrage!

In October 2010, Hessel's essay, Time for Outrage! (original French title: Indignez-vous !), was published in an edition of 6,000 copies (ISBN 978-1455509720 ). It has sold more than 3.5 million copies worldwide[17] and has been translated into Swedish, Danish, Basque, Catalan,[18] Italian,[7] German.[5] Greek, Portuguese,[7] Slovenian,[19] Spanish,[7]Croatian, Hebrew,[20] Korean[21] and Dutch. Translations into Japanese, Hungarian, and other languages are planned. In the United States, The Nation magazine's 7–14 March 2011 issue published the entire essay in English.[7][22]
Hessel's booklet argues that the French need to again become outraged, as were those who participated in the Resistance during World War II. Hessel's reasons for personal outrage include the growing gap between the very rich and the very poor, France's treatment of its illegal immigrants, the need to re-establish a free press, the need to protect the environment, importance of protecting the French welfare system,[7] and the plight of Palestinians, recommending that people read the September 2009 Goldstone Report.[23] He calls for peaceful and non-violent insurrection.[23]
In 2011, one of the names given to the Spanish protests against corruption and bipartisan politics was Los Indignados(The Outraged), taken from the title of the book's translation there (¡Indignaos!). These protests, in conjunction with the Arab Spring, later helped to inspire other protests in many countries, including GreeceUKChileIsrael, and Occupy Wall Street which began in New York's financial district, but has now spread across the United States and numerous other countries. Ongoing protests in Mexico challenging corruption, drug cartel violence, economic hardship and policies also have been called the Indignados.[24] Similarly, 2013 protests in Brazil have taken place questioning the government's corruption and its capability of managing public transport, health and education.

Engagez-vous !

In 2011, Stéphane Hessel published "Engagez-Vous !" ("Get Involved!"), written with the young French journalist Gilles Vanderpooten. In it "Stephane Hessel appeals to his readers to save the environment and to embrace the positive. He also emphasizes the importance of good luck in life".[25] The book was a success in France and became a bestseller. It was translated into 15 foreign languages, from Europe to Asia and South America.

Views of Israel

In 2011, Hessel penned an article in the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, in which he compared the Nazi occupation of France during World War II with the occupation of Palestinian Territories by Israeli army in such terms : "the German occupation was, when compared for example with the present occupation of Palestine by the Israelis, a relatively harmless occupation, apart from exceptions like the arrests, detentions and executions, also of the theft of art treasures."[26] Responding to the controversy raised by these remarks, he clarified that he was drawing "no parallel between the horrors of Nazism and the illegal attitude of a state" (Israel); that he naturally supported the existence of Israel but that he wished to be able to criticise the actions of the Israeli authorities without automatically being accused of "antisemitism". He regretted that his words in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung had been perhaps "written too quickly, and read too quickly".[27]
He told the Ha'aretz newspaper: "Israel must be led differently to ensure its security". Having seen "firsthand the Jews’ suffering" as a Holocaust survivor, he clarified that he wished to see Israelis' safety guaranteed by a responsible government. As a supporter of a two state solution, he also told the newspaper: "[A]s long as Palestinian violence exists, but not a Palestinian state, Israel is in danger, because it cannot obtain assistance from the international community against an entity that is not subordinate to international law".[28]

Death

On 26 February 2013, Hessel died overnight at age 95. The following afternoon his name was a top trending term on Twitter in France and Spain.[29] French president Francois Hollande said Hessel's death caused him "great sadness" and remarked "Hessell's capacity for indignation knew no bounds other than those of his own life. As that comes to an end, he leaves us a lesson: to refuse to accept any injustice."[29] UN Human Rights Council chairman Remigiusz Henczel remarked "Mr Hessel was a monumental figure of human rights. His life will continue to inspire our work."[29]French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault paid tribute to him in the following terms: "In France, in Europe, in the world, Stephane Hessel was the spirit of resistance incarnate. For every generation, for young people, he was a source of inspiration but also a reference. At 95, he embodied faith in the future of this new century."[30] The United Nations Human Rights Council observed a moment of silence in Hessel's memory, which was said to be "unprecedented".[30]
Previously, Hessel had offered his thoughts on death: "Death is something to savour, and I hope to savour mine."[29] His final work, "Don’t Give Up: In the Trenches with the Spanish for Liberty and Progress", will be published posthumously. It was originally scheduled to be published in May, but the publisher moved the release date up to mid-March after Hessel's death.[31]
Hessel was survived by his wife Christiane, and three children from a previous marriage.[32]

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